Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Quiz4

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1. When light is scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such that the scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and wavelength as the incident photons. However, a small fraction of the scattered light (approximately 1 in 10 million photons) is scattered by an excitation, with the scattered photons having a frequency different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons. Which phenomenon are we talking about?

Answer: Raman Effect

2. Who was the first scientist to win Nobel prize twice?

Answer: Madam Marrie Currie

3. Formally designated as the MED, it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1939–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The highest academic qualification required for the common labour of the project was that they had to be illiterate. Which famous project is being talked about?

Answer: The Manhattan Project for developing the first atom bomb

4. For what contribution did Albert Einstein receive the Nobel Prize in 1929?

Answer: The Photoelectric law (not theory of relativity)

5. He was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian and one of the most influential men in human history. His Philosophie Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science, laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. Which great man is being referred to?

Answer: Sir Issac Newton

6. Chemically, it consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The entire structure is termed as the double helical structure. What is being talked about?

Answer: DNA

7. It is a metabolic pathway that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. Which process?

Answer: Photosynthesis

8. It is the spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm that repeats several times per minute. In humans, the abrupt rush of air into the lungs causes the epiglottis to close, creating the noise. In medicine, it is known as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter (SDF), or singultus. How do we know it better?

Answer: Hiccup

9. How do we commonly know a class of edible crystalline substances, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose?

Answer: Sugar

10. It is always the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases that are produced by the combustion which apply force to the movable component of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades. Which engine is being described here?

Answer: The internal combustion engine


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