## Friday, August 13, 2010

### Aptitude Questions Set No 5

[Write the output of the following code snippets if correct or the error it may generate.]

1) #include
main()
{
char s[]={'a','b','c','\n','c','\0'};
char *p,*str,*str1;
p=&s;
str=p;
str1=s;
printf("%d",++*p + ++*str1-32);
}

77
Explanation:
p is pointing to character '\n'. str1 is pointing to character 'a' ++*p. "p is pointing to '\n' and that is incremented by one." the ASCII value of '\n' is 10, which is then incremented to 11. The value of ++*p is 11. ++*str1, str1 is pointing to 'a' that is incremented by 1 and it becomes 'b'. ASCII value of 'b' is 98.
Now performing (11 + 98 – 32), we get 77("M");
So we get the output 77 :: "M" (Ascii is 77).

2) #include
main()
{
int a = { {10,2,3,4}, {5,6,7,8} };
int *p,*q;
p=&a;
*q=***a;
printf("%d----%d",*p,*q);
}

SomeGarbageValue---1
Explanation:
p=&a you declare only two 2D arrays, but you are trying to access the third 2D(which you are not declared) it will print garbage values. *q=***a starting address of a is assigned integer pointer. Now q is pointing to starting address of a. If you print *q, it will print first element of 3D array.

3) #include
main()
{
struct xx
{
int x=3;
char name[]="hello";
};
struct xx *s;
printf("%d",s->x);
printf("%s",s->name);
}
Compiler Error
Explanation:
You should not initialize variables in declaration

4) #include
main()
{
struct xx
{
int x;
struct yy
{
char s;
struct xx *p;
};
struct yy *q;
};
}

Compiler Error
Explanation:
The structure yy is nested within structure xx. Hence, the elements are of yy are to be accessed through the instance of structure xx, which needs an instance of yy to be known. If the instance is created after defining the structure the compiler will not know about the instance relative to xx. Hence for nested structure yy you have to declare member.

5) main()
{
printf("\nab");
printf("\bsi");
printf("\rha");
}

hai
Explanation:
\n - newline
\b - backspace
\r - linefeed

6) main()
{
int i=5;
printf("%d%d%d%d%d%d",i++,i--,++i,--i,i);
}

45545
Explanation:
The arguments in a function call are pushed into the stack from left to right. The evaluation is by popping out from the stack and the evaluation is from right to left, hence the result.

7) #define square(x) x*x
main()
{
int i;
i = 64/square(4);
printf("%d",i);
}

64
Explanation:
the macro call square(4) will substituted by 4*4 so the expression becomes i = 64/4*4 .
Since / and * has equal priority the expression will be evaluated as (64/4)*4 i.e. 16*4 = 64

8) main()
{
char *p="hai friends",*p1;
p1=p;
while(*p!='\0') ++*p++;
printf("%s %s",p,p1);
}

ibj!gsjfoet
Explanation:
++*p++ will be parse in the given order
 *p that is value at the location currently pointed by p will be taken
 ++*p the retrieved value will be incremented
 when ; is encountered the location will be incremented that is p++ will be executed. Hence, in the while loop initial value pointed by p is ‘h’, which is changed to ‘i’ by executing ++*p and pointer moves to point, ‘a’ which is similarly changed to ‘b’ and so on. Similarly blank space is converted to ‘!’. Thus, we obtain value in p becomes “ibj!gsjfoet” and since p reaches ‘\0’ and p1 points to p thus p1doesnot print anything.

9) #include
#define a 10
main()
{
#define a 50
printf("%d",a);
}

50
Explanation:
The preprocessor directives can be redefined anywhere in the program. So the most recently assigned value will be taken.

10) #define clrscr() 100
main()
{
clrscr();
printf("%d\n",clrscr());
}

100
Explanation:
Preprocessor executes as a seperate pass before the execution of the compiler. So textual
replacement of clrscr() to 100 occurs.The input program to compiler looks like this :
main()
{
100;
printf("%d\n",100);
}
Note:
100; is an executable statement but with no action. So it doesn't give any problem

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